Wednesday, October 3, 2012

Using E – resources for research in university libraries

“It is regularly noted that, in much of sub-Saharan Africa, a lack of up-to-date journals is a major constraint on research. The advancing open access movement is regularly hailed as offering new opportunities for Africa and other southern researchers to gain access to better scientific knowledge, but what of the vast body of important work still published on ‘traditional’ subscription journals?” – Harle 2010
The information explosion has seen a proliferation of information sources on the internet. It has literary caused the information overload to a multitude of challenges to researchers who on a daily basis require information. However, the electronic resources available through the open access platform have provided a wide range of information sources for study. Meanwhile librarians have spearheaded the formation of conglomerates to augment the existence of open access.
Libraries world over have formed consortia’s to alleviate reading resources shortage and increase access to scholarly information in academic institutions. According to Vernagula and Kelkar, “A Consortium could be described as a group of organisations who come together to fulfill a combined objective that usefully requires co-operation and the sharing of resources.” The primary aim is to deliver “more than the sum of the individual parts”.  The premise of library Consortium formation states that they can be local, regional, state, national and inter institutional level. The library consortium has a number of advantages that are full utilisation of funds, opportunity to build up digital libraries, access to a wide range of electronic resources at substantially low costs and helpful to improve library services.

Electronic resources have improved the manner in which information is made available and shared in libraries and in numerous countries they are available through library consortiums. In Zimbabwe, the Zimbabwe Universities Library Consortium (ZULC) was formed to change the way university libraries in Zimbabwe operate. It is a formation of 11 local universities that is working toward improving access to information through the e – resources platform. The major activities of the consortium vary from conferences to workshops and training activities. The ZULC members participate in the workshops to enhance their projects in individual libraries. Several projects that were initiated by International Network for the Availability of Scientific Publications  (INASP) include providing funds for training on building institutional repositories (IR), e – resources use training and making the electronic resources available to the consortium through Programme for the Enhancement of Research information (PERii).

The researching community of the consortium is benefiting from the full text journals that are available 24/7 outside the library environment. A major recognition of the programme is that current information is available in the library. Undergraduate and post graduate students are making use of e-resources in university libraries apparently the statistics in most libraries reveal that a number of users prefer e – journals to print resources. The proposal to make e – resources available in the libraries was at a larger extend stimulated by budget cuts that saw libraries failing to restock. In most cases the results were failure to satisfy user information need.

The open access (OA) movement also provides alternative information sources for library users. OA refers to “access to material (mainly scholarly publications) via the Internet in such a way that the material is free for all to read, and to use (or reuse) to various extents” (Wikipedia). According to the University of Zimbabwe library website, “Open Access (OA) is the free online availability of digital content. It is best-known and most feasible for peer-reviewed scientific and scholarly journal articles, which scholars publish without expectation of payment.” Many librarians have been vocal and active advocates of open access probably having envisioned the benefits to the library amid the budget cuts. These librarians believe that open access promises to remove both the price barriers and the permission barriers that undermine library efforts to provide access to the journal literature. Librarians also educate faculty, administrators, and others about the benefits of open access. Library users are comfortable using e – journals outside the library. The library has removed the limitations to access library resources for users that have seen a rise in the use of e-resources in a number of university libraries in Zimbabwe. Scientific information is critical in enhancing research in local universities through providing valuable information for literature review.

The significance of e – resources in libraries particularly in east and southern Africa has been prioritised in universities to allow access to a growing body of literature for academic purposes. Several initiatives are in place to avail   an impressive range of high-quality peer-reviewed materials. A study conducted in east and southern Africa in four universities studied had 79% of the top 20 journals across 15 subject areas in 2009. According to the findings whilst the availability of journals has improved significantly the usage amongst staff and students does not appear to be keeping pace. Despite the efforts propelled by librarians to devote funds for journal subscriptions, use of e – resources remains “stubbornly low” regardless of libraries having an excellent e – journal collections in wide disciplines that are comparable to those in Western university libraries. Under ZULC university libraries in Zimbabwe have access to INASP – PERii and UN sponsored schemes HINARI, AGORA, OARE (in health, agriculture and environment respectively) which offer high huge volumes of high-quality scientific information.

The bottom line for acceptance of e – resources in libraries is the currency of information that is critical for academic excellence to students and that keep the scholarly community abreast in their field of study. The subject of information currency in information and library practice is crucial and has been debate in numerous forums in a bid to emphasize the significance of up to date information sources for research and study. The currency of information is identified by the date of publication the more recent the date of publication the more up to date the information.

Availability of information 24/7/365 days out of the library environment is a major strength for e – resources against other sources of information. Information utilisation outside the library environment provides freedom and flexibility to users giving a platform for constructive debates. The major setback probably maybe the restrictions of passwords usage outside a specified IP address but however arrangements can be done by the librarians, publishers and e – resources providers to make the passwords access from any IP. Information in universities is a critical component that at a regular basis scholars require access to and its availability outside the library building becomes an eminent priority. Today’s information collectors are interested in promoting access rather than holdings. The concept of access is the major objective of libraries but due to a wide range of challenges associated with book resources and accountability, collection of resources for holdings is slowly losing its grip in promoting access as compared to e – resources that are accessed outside the library as long connection to internet is available.

Due the nature of e - resources a possibility to search numerous database using different search terms give them strength over print resources. Researchers require accessing a number of literatures in their field of study to have conclusive information for discussion and relate to in class. The possibilities of multiple searches give the researcher opportunity to select from a wide range of information that strengthens their findings. Several other factors that librarians has considered for recommending  e – resources has been faster and easier access to information that are provided by the nature of internet.

The Zimbabwe Open University (ZOU) like other members of the ZULC has taken a major step of promoting awareness to e – resources within its community to promote access to information. A number of awareness programmes has been launched to make sure that the academic and student population make use of the e – resources for research and scholarship. A number of training workshops has been conducted with the objective of creating awareness, acquaint and demonstrate on the step-by-step procedure for accessing the e – journals. Harle (2010) has noted that researchers are simply not aware of their own holdings. ZOU has defied the notion and commerce training workshops to create awareness of the virtual library holdings.  The training programmes largely targeted the academic population and are continuing to cascade to students starting with Dhil students. The University Library Acting Director has taken every opportunity available to acquaint Dhil students on the existence of e – resources and an influx of the students to the library for personalised information literacy skills training. Information literacy skills are offered by the senior library assistants who also have gone through an intensive e – resources use training sponsored by INSAP as a mandate to their PERii programme. Through ZULC, ZOU has access to a wide range of e – journal databases that have helped to minimize reading material challenges in thee university for various programmes. Among the databases are jstor, EBSCOhost (which host a number of databases namely Eric, Business Premier, among others), Emerald, Agora, HINARI, OARE, and Cambridge journals among others. According to Harle (2010) the availability problem has been solved – not entirely of course, but to the point that attention can now be refocused elsewhere. Perhaps what may need to be done is to include the e – journals in the library catalogues to make them more accessible. He further noted that the initiatives have hugely successful in (virtually) restocking libraries across the higher education and research sector.

The valuable resources are critical in academic work as they are published by authoritative publishers and bodies that contribute immensely to the world research literature. Through these initiatives it is hoped that academic communities in Africa shall also contribute immensely to the ever growing research literature body.

<!--[if !supportLists]-->1.        <!--[endif]-->Growing knowledge: access to research in east and southern Africa.
<!--[if !supportLists]-->2.        <!--[endif]-->Harle, J. (2010) “The Availability of scientific journals in eastern and southern Africa: misunderstanding the problem?” Bulletin. No. 170 May.
Open accessing.

October is International School Library Month

October is International School Library Month (ISLM) celebrated across the world to celebrate the significance of the school library and school librarians in the learning environment.
The theme for this year is School libraries: a key to the past, present and future which reveal a very strong connection between the school library and the cultural, social and educational environments of society.
The school libraries are instrumental in fostering intellectual growth amongst the students and further prepare the students to be independent researchers through imparting information literacy skills to allow students to study and seek information effectively in the information age. Thus the benefit to the students is competences to utilise information effectively and be able to participant in the education system as an informed student.

The Zimbabwe Library Association (ZimLA) branches in Manicaland, Mashonaland, Matebeleland, Midlands and Masvingo are to commemorate the month in different activities that honour the school librarians for their resilience in working towards achieving the Unesco/IFLA School library Manifesto that states that, “The School library is essential to every long-term strategy for literacy, education, information provision and economic, social and cultural development.”
It is envisioned that training activities are to be part of the events to equip the school librarians with skills that make them relevant in the environment were electronic gadgets are becoming popular with students. Further activities may include a School Library Open Day to create awareness about the school library and its purpose in the learning environment to parents and the community in general.

The functions of the School Library as expressed by the International Association of School Librarianship (IASL) are as follows:-
Informational - to provide for reliable information, rapid access, retrieval and transfer of information; the school library should be part of regional and national information networks.

Educational - to provide continuous lifelong education through provision of the facilities and atmosphere for learning: guidance in location, selection and use of material and training in information skills, through integration with classroom teaching; promotion of intellectual freedom.

Cultural - to improve the quality of life through the presentation and support of the aesthetic experience, guidance in appreciation of arts, encouragement of creativity, and development of positive human relations.

Recreational - to support and enhance a balanced and enriched life and encourage meaningful use of leisure time through provision of recreational information, materials and programs of recreational value, and guidance in the use of leisure time.

The role of the school library is to “facilitate the planning and implementation of learning programmes that will equip students with the skills necessary to succeed in a constantly changing social and economic environment.” Through resource-based programs, students acquire skills to collect, critically analyse and organise information, problem-solve and communicate their understandings reported IASL.
The school library system in Zimbabwe is facing a myriad of challenges from lack of funding to lack of space. Above that school libraries do not seem to be a top priority for the Ministry of Education and School Administrators despite the advantages and the instrumental role of the school libraries in the learning environment. A general assessment of the situation shows that a school library may be a classroom block with boxes and is always closed and if opened it is under stocked. Further assessment reveal that the position of a school librarian in Zimbabwe is not supported by the Public Service Commission (PSC) and Salary Services Bureau (SSB), human resource department of the government. This leaves the position of librarian being sponsored by the School Development Association offering poor remuneration and working conditions that give the position a bad image.

At the 46th ZimLA Conference in Kadoma in June librarians moved a motion to the Ministry representative that the position of the school librarian should be absorbed in to the PSC and SSB structures. It is the hope of ZimLA that a positive resolution would materialise from the Ministry.
As the School library month progress in the month of October let’s see the events that promote the school library as an engagement place that help to define the students in the quest of information and impart information literacy skills essential for independent learning.

Friday, June 29, 2012

Harare City Libary received support

The Harare City Library formerly Queen Victoria Memorial Library which was established in 1902 recently benefited from a $20 000 donation raised from a fundraising dinner and library books worth $15 000. The Zimbabwean reportedly said that, British Ambassador Deborah Bronnert handed over the donation to the Harare City Library Board to help renovate the library.

In her remarks, according to The Zimbabwean, Ambassador Bronnert said, "Libraries are tremendously important in all communities and I am delighted that we have been able to make contribution towards restoring the Harare City Library, which would be a centre of learning and literacy." Ambassador Bronnert appreciated efforts by members who supported the fundraising and hoped that such support will continue.

The donation will go a long way to renovate the building and improve on collection building to play its role effectively as a public library. The library is heavily used with students from private colleges who find frequent the library for reading material.  

Tuesday, May 29, 2012

Technology is the catalyst - Librarians urged to find new models

“Technology is the catalyst – the opportunity to challenge ourselves – time to adapt, to think out of the box, to move way out of our comfort zones – to be visionary and see a bright and exciting future for the librarian.” These are the words of Library and Information Association of South Africa (LIASA) president Naomi Haasbroek during the keynote address at the 46th Zimbabwe Library Association conference underway in Kadoma.

This came at a time when librarians are battling to content with emerging technologies which are fast developing than the librarianship profession. The advent of internet has brought a number of technologies that require continual funding for the library to keep abreast which cannot be done due to frequent budget cuts affecting libraries. The theme of the conference ‘Information professionals at crossroads: opportunity for change’ has challenged librarians to be proactive through using that technology to improve information distribution. Haasbroek said that technology has created exciting possibilities for business, education, and research and libraries are no exception - the new developments in technology have brought new modes of information delivery, new platforms, and new access points. Haasbroek contributions are significant towards encouraging developing new models for running libraries in times of transition. The most critical development to note is Web 2.0 technology that has allowed the users to take control of information delivering tools that are easy and convenient and are available 24/7 outside the library walls.

Naomi Haasbroek (far right), LIASA pesident
sharing ideas  at the 46th ZimLA
Conference and AGM in Kadoma.
The notion of embedded librarianship should take into effect as highlighted by Haasbroek that the Embedded Librarian is a new generation librarian who no longer sits in the library waiting for the client to visit the library, but who “embeds” him/herself in the faculty, department or classroom.  She further pointed out that the new role requires the librarian to become an integral part of the team, to build relationships with faculty and to add value by providing relevant information and assistance to access, evaluate and manipulate the information as needed.   The emphasis is on utilizing the emerging technologies to better serve the user in time of need.

The embedded librarian is the ideal tool to better serve the “Google Generation”, Generation Y, also known as “Born with technology” (BWT) a group of users who are digitally savvy and communicate via social networks. Technology has dramatically changed the way librarians should model there operations to better serve the new group of users.
The conference has provided a new perspective for librarians to understand trends in library communities and how the library spaces are shifting to pave way for new developments. The concept of open access, e-books, kindle and other new web 2.0 functionalities are making it possible for librarians to deliver better and improve the visibility of the library. LIASA president put a new mark through challenging librarians to adopt emerging technologies as a route to take from the crossroads to reinvent and transform the way information services are delivered.

Monday, May 14, 2012

Zimbabwe Rural Schools Library Trust Launched in Harare

The birth of a new baby brings joy to the family and new hope for the future when that baby’s needs are provided for. Probable opportunities are high that the child one day lifts the family flag high by landing that high job that would change the position of the entire family – including extended family.
The birth of a new baby is synonymous to the launch of Zimbabwe Rural Schools Library Trust (ZRSLT) an organization established for the sustainable development of libraries in rural schools and communities. The launch took place in Harare and was attended by several Ministers, council officials and members from the library fraternity. ZRSLT join a plethora of civic organizations established to push for the development of school and rural community libraries in Zimbabwe with the view of improving rural information access and to fill the gap between the ICT ‘haves’ and ‘have-not’.
Well, the amazing attribute of the trust is to reinforce a reading culture among rural school children who have been marginalized due to a myriad of challenges associated with lack of library infrastructure and commitments to other work after school. The support to be provided by ZRSLT in form of book donations and training (I suppose) will go a long way to support the schools and communities’ educational, cultural, entertainment and informational interests. The right to information is a fundamental right that requires efforts from all concerned parties (government and civic society) to build a knowledgeable people capable of leading the future with wisdom. Access to information to deprived communities has potential to increase economic activities and agricultural development which are key activities to eradicate poverty.

Part of the people that attended
 the launch of  ZRSLT in Harare at the Town House.
(Picture courtesy of ZRSLT)

ZRSLT anticipate unlocking the reading potential in participating communities whilst putting a stop to child delinquency through participatory activities that engage the children in mental and intellectual capacity. Further benefits of the ZRSLT programmes include assistance with information on agricultural activities and equip the community ICT skills to enable them to be independent researchers and learners. Information literacy skills are critical for the 21st century citizen to allow effective information sharing and participate in development issues. The trust programme provides a working solution to challenges bedeviling the rural schools expansion and educational projects if implemented fully.
As I said in the beginning that such birth can be a blessing if well taken care of as they propel growth in society but the big question still remains – How are they going to implement the trust projects for the rural schools to benefit? Several other issues stand in the way relating to the role of National Library and Documentation Services (NLDS), Zimbabwe Library Association (ZimLA) and other Ministry departments who have the mandate to develop the library fraternity in Zimbabwe. Their continual silence is tantamount to put the library development in Zimbabwe into a sinking ship regardless of the fundamental importance of libraries in communities they are established. Efforts from ZRSLT and other civic organizations are imperative for equipping the society with the endeavor to enrich the human mind for social inclusion.

Thursday, April 12, 2012

National Library Week Commemorations held in Harare

Mr. C. Chisita expressing a point during a presentation at the NLW.
The American Information Center (ARC) in Harare joined the rest of the world to observe this year’s National Library Week running from April 8 – April 14, 2012 under the theme, “You Belong @ your library.”

The main concept was to celebrate the contributions of librarian in the 21st century. The ARC provided the public an opportunity to familiarize themselves with the facilities and services including podcasting and kindle project. The focus of the discussion was to highlight the contributions of the librarians in the 21st century to society. One of the presenters, Harare Polytechnic faculty staff member Collence Chisita, noted that libraries continue to transform lives which mean librarians should adopt and adapt new and emerging technologies as well as experimenting with innovative and transformational ideas to provide services that empower patrons.

The event provided a great opportunity for presenters to outline the significant contributions of librarians in society amid serious competition emerging from alternative sources of information and social media.  The event was tailored to encourage librarians to adopt technological innovation to increase their impact in their respective communities. In this Information Age, librarians play a critical role in moving forward towards a knowledge-based economy model which requires extensive use of Information Technology in promoting democracy, equality, and development.
The larger group of participants following proceedings at the NLW.

Keeton (2012) noted that “Traits that will help in the profession include people skills, listening skills, being innovative, and non-judgmental.” The State of America’s Libraries report (2012) published by ALA noted that the uptake of social media in libraries has increased tremendously and the American Library Association (ALA), the world’s largest and most influential library association continues to provide leadership in the transformation of libraries and library services in a dynamic and increasing global digital information environment. The report further highlighted that the library community is working towards addressing the issue of e-books and libraries, and of digital content more generally.
Part of the librarians that attended the NLW commemorations.
Chisita noted that the demand for libraries is to increase despite the enormous competition posed by emerging technologies and social media apps. In his presentation he coined the term “original search engine” to refer to the librarians and noted that future trends require librarians to adapt p technological innovation to better disseminate information. The 21st century has seen a number of challenges affecting the role of the librarians together with unprecedented budget cuts that has contributed to below capacity operations. Zimbabwe is not immune to these challenges but has enjoyed a high ICT uptake by locals and librarians are likely to take advantage of this development to provide services using ICT apps.

Thursday, January 26, 2012

Zimbabwe Library Association 46th Conference slated for Kwekwe

Zimbabwe Library Association (ZimLA) remains the official librarian’s representative in Zimbabwe taking over from the Rhodesia Library Association. It has been in existence for more than four decades. The recent readmission in to the IFLA community does send a positive signal to local librarians who had despaired on the role of ZimLA in professional activities. The recent announcement of the 46th ZimLA conference staged for Kwekwe in May is again a boaster to the activities of ZimLA which due to a number of reasons – known to you – have failed to take place. I am positive that this is a new start after social-economic challenges that have handicapped the professional association’s mandate.
Now what’s the way forward? The way forward is for every LIBRARIAN/INFORMATION PROFESSIONAL to put weight behind the organisers of the workshop through submitting abstracts and attend the workshop in big numbers. But perhaps you have to be a registered librarian with ZimLA. Way to go indeed! Our Professional association has suffered much due to lack of support not financially but support in regard to membership. Please not that the vitality of any association is the support from membership. What role does membership play? You may ask. Membership is the support, it is the programmes, and it is the success of the association. So for the association to play a pivotal role in professional representation you should first be a member then take part in the activities. Then we have librarian’s association.
Basically the 46th ZimLA Conference is the opportunity to fine tune LIS/Ram issues in the Zimbabwean LIS/RAM landscape providing a platform for sharing ideas and best practices in the information age. You have realised that  keeping abreast with technology is a challenging phase not only in Zimbabwe but in numerous countries world wide. The underlying factors are sharing experiences and harness those ideas to better serve clients with limited resources whilst meeting expectations. This lead to the notion that technology is a leading threat to the library sector which the conference seek to address. If you cannot beat them join them, people say. If you view technology as a threat, utilise it to gain advantage. Utilise its strength to manage and increase job satisfaction.
You have a lot to learn by attending the 46th ZimLA conference. The main theme of the even its “Information Professionals at the Crossroads: Opportunity for Change.” Indeed this time and age provide numerous opportunities for librarians to prosper and innovate in their respective spaces.
What you have to do? Play your part. Prepare to share experiences with others at the 46th Conference, prepare your abstract and submit it to before May 4th 2012 and book yourself a place to present. Further to that pay your subscription to be a bona fide member of ZimLA your professional association. Don’t be left out! Be part of the growing family.

Podcasting in Libraries

Podcasting, podcasting, podcasting – technology libraries have adopted to disseminate information and provide a wide range of services to different audience. Podcasting nearing a decade of existence nice 2004 have gained popularity in libraries, education, entertainment and social sectors recently as means for disseminating audio, video and sound files. Eash (2006) noted that in September 2004, when podcasting was in its infancy a Google search of “podcast” brought up only 24 results” but now it is well established medium providing more options for information access at the point of need.
The New Oxford American Dictionary defines podcast as “a digital recording of a radio broadcast or similar program made available on the internet for downloading to a personal audio player.” Educational institutions are now creating audio lectures for distribution as podcasting. The Library of Congress defines a podcast as “an audio or video file that is available for listening or viewing on your computer or downloadable to a portable media device or mp3 player.” Basically, podcasts are audio, video and sound files created, shared through downloading and heard over equipment designed for that.  
Libraries are increasingly making use of podcasts for information dissemination, information literacy skills training, book clubs and discussions.  The following texts is an extract from the article by Esther Kreider Eash that appeared in Computers in Libraries” titled “Podcasting 101 for K–12 Librarians” that detail the reasons to use podcasts.
Reasons to Use Podcasts in School Libraries
“When new forms of technology arrive, consider the reasons for their use. The fact that the podcast is a new format isn’t reason enough to use it in a school library. Instead, ask questions. Is a portable audio format the best format for this task? How does the podcast support my goals? How does a podcast enhance student learning?
There are two basic types of podcast use, each valid in the K–12 library (or classroom) setting: to retrieve information (accessing podcasts created by others) and to disseminate information (creating and sharing podcasts).
I’m convinced that the real power of podcasting is twofold: It gives learners point-of-need access to information, and it disseminates information in exciting new ways. Students eagerly and actively participate in the creation of content-rich podcasts, and those who publish their podcasts publicly are quickly connected to the world community in ways never before possible. 6
In fall 2005, I spoke with librarians and searched the literature and Internet to get examples of podcast usage in school libraries. While most of the librarians I work with are in the very beginning stages of podcast understand­ing and implementation, they eagerly embrace the concept. And after hearing examples from my research, they’re quick to think of their own creative applications.
Many librarians help students and teachers retrieve podcasts to supplement curricular needs, particularly to get news and information for research. (See the sidebar Podcast Content for Library Research on page 19.) But because the body of publicly accessible K–12-appropriate podcasts has been limited (though quickly growing), most librarians were more focused on helping students (and teachers) author their own podcasts. I have used the following examples as catalysts to help Edison librarians brainstorm simple ways of incorporating podcasts into their own library programming. Below are my examples along with some suggested projects for each application:
• Promoting the library—I found some examples of schools that are helping their communities learn about available library programming, especially reading and book promotion. Grandview Elementary School in Monsey, N.Y., provides storytelling, a library newsletter, and creative writing podcasts. 7 Isinglass High School and Middle School in Contoocook, N.H., offers library book talks on the Teen Read Award nominees. 8 You can also use podcasts for book reviews, reading incentive program overviews, and connecting librarians to student achievements.
• Using student products to share learning—An end product of student research can be a paper, poster, or even a podcast. Two of the most compelling examples I found of student-produced podcasts are from Willowdale Elementary School in Omaha, Neb., where Radio WillowWeb 9 offers informative and entertaining culminations of studies, and Longfellow School in La Crosse, Wis., where Coulee Kids Podcasts 10 provide subscribers with chronicles of ongoing research. The students’ observations and excitement for learning are infectious. Now the entire world can listen in on their learning. 11, 12 Student podcasts can include interviews, dramatizations of students’ creative writing, readings of book passages to demonstrate skills, and observations about the learning process.
• Sharing school news—The librarian can be a leader in the use of technology to disseminate information and to increase community involvement beyond the library walls. Examples of what’s possible include Minneapolis Public Schools’ audio publication of school board meetings 13 and an interview with a principal in the Dubuque (Iowa) Community School District. 14 This technique can also be used to advertise upcoming concerts or to replay highlights of a basketball game.
• Providing professional development—The first podcast I created was a short 10-minute session for site librarians that helped them write book reviews and become involved in a book review program. The second was a 20-minute podcast about the Top 10 presentation tips for librarians. The podcast format for professional development is compelling: Create content once and it’s always accessible for review. Profession­al development podcasts can also include on-demand tutorials, copyright discussions, book group discussion guides, overviews of new services or policies, presentations by outside professionals, or introductory discussions of educational issues.”

Eash, K. E. (2006) “Podcasting 101 for K-12 librarians.” Computers in Libraries. 2006. Internet Available at